Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Cultivation of Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum is an ornamental flower plants such as shrubs or other Chrysanthemum Flower gold (Golden Flower) come from the plains of China. Yellow chrysanthemum comes from the plains of China, known as Chrysanthenum indicum (yellow), C. morifolium (purple and pink) and C. daisy (round, ponpon). In Japan the 4th century began to grow chrysanthemums, chrysanthemum flowers and 797 year serve as a symbol of imperial Japan with the title Queen of the East. Chrysanthemum plants from China and Japan to spread to Europe and France in 1795. Mr 1808. Colvil from Chelsa develop eight varieties of chrysanthemum in the UK. Type or modern chrysanthemum varieties allegedly began to be found in the 17th century. Since 1940, chrysanthemum developed commercially. 

PLANT TYPE Botanical classification of chrysanthemum plants are as follows:

* Division: Spermathophyta
* Sub Division: Angiospermae
* Family: Asteraceae
* Genus: Chrysanthemum
* Species: C. morifolium Ramat, C. indicum, C. daisy etc. 

Usability is a major chrysanthemum as ornamental flowers. Another benefit is as traditional medicinal plants and toxin-producing insects. As an ornamental flower, chrysanthemum is used as:

    1. Flower pots: Marked with the figure of a small plant, 20-40 cm tall, flowering dense and suitable to be planted in pots, polybags or other containers. Examples of mini chrysanthemum (small flower diameter) are varieties of Lilac Cindy (flower color purplefish ping), Pearl Cindy (reddish white), Cindy White (white with greenish white center), applause (bright yellow), Yellow Mandalay (all from the Netherlands). Chrysanthemum introduction of the widely planted flowering as flower pots, there are 12 varieties of potted chrysanthemums in Indonesia, the most planted varieties are the Delano (purple), Rage (red) and Time (yellow).
    2. Cut flower: Characterized by short-sized figure of interest to high, has a flower stalk length, the size varies (small, medium and large), are generally planted in the field and the results can be used as cut flowers. Examples of cut flowers very much, among others, Inga, Improved funshine, Brides, Green peas, Great Verhagen, Puma, Reagents, Cheetah, etc. Klondike.
    1. Chrysanthemum plants need adequate water, but not resistant to exposure to rain water. Therefore, for high rainfall areas,
       planting is done in house building plastic.
    2. For flowering requires a longer light that is with the help of light from fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps. The addition of radiation is best between the hours of 22:30 to 01:00 midnight with the lights 150 watts to the area of ​​9 m 2 and lights installed at 1.5 m from ground level. Period lighting installation is done until the vegetative phase (2-8 weeks) to encourage the formation of flowers.
    3. The best air temperature for the tropics such as Indonesia is between 20-26 degrees C. Tolerant of air temperature to keep growing is 17-30 degrees C.
    4. Chrysanthemum plants require high humidity for the early formation of roots of seedlings, cuttings required 90-95%. Young plants to mature between 70-80%, balanced with adequate air circulation.
    5. CO2 levels in the wild around 3000 ppm. CO2 levels are ideal for spur fotosistesa between 600-900 ppm. In chrysanthemum cultivation in closed buildings, such as plastic house, greenhouse, CO2 can be added, until reaching the recommended levels.
    1. Land that is ideal for chrysanthemum is a sandy clay texture, fertile, loose and good drainage, does not contain pests and diseases.
    2. Good soil acidity for plant growth of about 5.5 to 6.7.
    1. Terms of Seeds: Seeds taken from healthy parent, excellent quality, strong ability to grow plants, free from pests and diseases and commercial markets.
    2. Preparation of Seeds: Nurseries chrysanthemums done in a way that is by vegetative tillers, shoot cuttings and tissue culture.
          1. Seedling tiller origin
          2. Shoot cuttings seedling origin: Determine the plants healthy and old enough. Select shoots that grow healthy shoots, base of 3-5 mm diameter, 5 cm long, has 3 adult leaves bright green, cut these shoots, Direct Seeding or stored in a cool room air temperature of 4 degrees C, with humidity of 30% for fixed resistant fresh for 3-4 weeks. Cuttings storage method is wrapped with several layers of tissue paper, then inserted into a plastic bag an average of 50 cuttings.       
1. Seeding in the tub: Prepare a place or land of nursery tanks measuring 80 cm wide, 25 cm depth, length and should be tailored to the needs of high-footed tub. Bak perforated for drainage of excessive. Seedlings of sand sterile medium until quite full. Seeding shoot cuttings with a distance of 3 cm x 3 cm and a depth of 1-2 cm, before it was implanted Rotoon (ZPT). After planting a pair of transparent plastic lid on the entire surface.
2. Seeding tissue culture: Seeds in a mini-bottle was transferred to sterile sand medium nursery Guang Yu Book Store and be covered opaque plastic.
1. Formation of beds: Sports soil using hoes deep as 30 cm to loose, keringanginkan for 15 days. Gemburkan the second time as he cleared of weeds and form beds with a width of 100-120 cm, height 20-30 cm, length adapted to the land, the distance between beds 30-40 cm.
2. Calcification: The land that has a pH> 5.5, need to be given such calcification in the form of agricultural lime with dolomite, calcite, zeagro. Dosage depends on soil pH. Needs dolomite at pH 5 = 5.02 tons / ha, pH 5.2 = 4.08 tonnes / ha, pH 5.3 = 3.60 tonnes / ha, pH 5.4 = 3.12 tonnes / ha. Liming is done by spreading evenly on the surface of the beds.
    1. Spacing and embroidery: stitching time as early as possible ie 10-15 days after planting. Stitching is done by replacing seedlings that died or permanent wilting with new seedlings.
    2. Weeding
    3. Irrigation and Watering: Watering is best in the morning or late afternoon, continuous irrigation, 1-2 times a day, depending on weather or growing medium. 


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